2014 Wisconsin Archeological Society research Award
Ph.D. Candidate, UW-Milwaukee
Blood Residue Analysis
Microwear and blood residue analyses of a sample of lithic artifacts from the Crescent Bay Hunt Club site, an Oneota village near Lake Koshkonong in southeastern Wisconsin, assists us in ascertaining how tools were used. The 2014 WASRA funded the blood residue testing of a sample of six tools. Results from both the WASRA sample and previous tests indicate that both the unifacial tools and triangular points tested were used on a variety of materials, including hide, meat, plant matter, and wood. A combination of microwear and blood residue data indicates the following uses:
Tool 390 was used in a scraping motion on deer hide. Tool 429 was used to scrape wet bison hide. Tool 408 was used to disarticulate a dog. Tool 107 was used as an arrow point and indicated use on bison. Tool 106 was used for multiple functions and exhibited human blood residue. Tool 241 was used as an arrow point and indicated use on a human. Tool 114 was used for multiple functions and exhibited deer blood residue. Tool 14-01 was used for butchering a deer.
This preliminary research helps us to better understand the relationship between stone tool use and the interaction of humans with the environment and each other. Microwear analysis of a much larger sample is currently under way and additional blood residue testing is planned.